Composer in Residence / John Adams. (Foto: Deborah O'Grady). John Adams gilt als die musikalische Stimme Amerikas – zumindest in der. John Coolidge Adams (* Februar in Worcester, Massachusetts) ist ein US-amerikanischer Komponist. Er wird zusammen mit Steve Reich, Philip Glass. John Adams (English Edition) eBook: McCullough, David: bistrotchezmaurice.com: Kindle-Shop.
John AdamsJohn Adams. John Adams, in Worcester (Massachusetts) geboren, begann als Jähriger mit dem Komponieren und erlebte erste Aufführungen seiner. Music: John Adams (b. ) Text: Walt Whitman () German Translation by Robert Gisshammer/English Elements (the yellow print highlights the sung. John Adams. Global Manufacturing Operations. Kongsberg AutomotiveUniversity of Warwick - WMG. Zürich und Umgebung, Schweiz+.
John Adams Mobile Menu Overlay VideoHave I Told You Lately That I Love You (Acoustic) Juli in QuincySuffolk County, Massachusetts war einer der Gründerväter Sträters Männerhaushalt 2021 Vereinigten Staaten und von bis der erste Vizepräsident sowie nach George Washington von bis der zweite Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten. Laut Diggins handelt es sich bei dieser Korrespondenz Die Fliege Remake eines der reichhaltigsten Dokumente der amerikanischen Geistesgeschichte. Juli debattierte der Kontinentalkongress über die Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Komitees der Glam Girls und verabschiedete diese nach redaktionellen Änderungen und einer Kürzung des Texts um ein Viertel, wobei die Passage zur Ächtung des Sklavenhandels Arte Blutsbande gestrichen wurde.
Included were four articles to the Boston Gazette. The articles were republished in The London Chronicle in as True Sentiments of America , also known as A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law.
He also spoke in December before the governor and council, pronouncing the Stamp Act invalid in the absence of Massachusetts representation at Parliament.
With the repeal of the Stamp Act in early , tensions with Britain temporarily eased. The family rented a clapboard house on Brattle Street that was known locally as the "White House".
He, Abigail, and the children lived there for a year, then moved to Cold Lane; still, later, they moved again to a larger house in Brattle Square in the center of the city.
Britain's passage of the Townshend Acts in revived tensions, and an increase in mob violence led the British to dispatch more troops to the colonies.
The soldiers were struck with snowballs, ice, and stones, and in the chaos the soldiers opened fire, killing five civilians, bringing about the infamous Boston Massacre.
The accused soldiers were arrested on charges of murder. When no other attorneys would come to their defense, Adams was impelled to do so despite the risk to his reputation — he believed no person should be denied the right to counsel and a fair trial.
The trials were delayed so that passions could cool. The week-long trial of the commander, Captain Thomas Preston , began on October 24 and ended in his acquittal, because it was impossible to prove that he had ordered his soldiers to fire.
But if innocence itself is brought to the bar and condemned, perhaps to die, then the citizen will say, 'whether I do good or whether I do evil is immaterial, for innocence itself is no protection,' and if such an idea as that were to take hold in the mind of the citizen that would be the end of security whatsoever.
Two, who had fired directly into the crowd, were convicted of manslaughter. Adams was paid a small sum by his clients.
According to biographer John E. Ferling , during jury selection Adams "expertly exercised his right to challenge individual jurors and contrived what amounted to a packed jury.
Not only were several jurors closely tied through business arrangements to the British army, but five ultimately became Loyalist exiles.
The prosperity of his law practice increased from this exposure, as did the demands on his time. In , Adams moved his family to Braintree but kept his office in Boston.
He noted on the day of the family's move, "Now my family is away, I feel no Inclination at all, no Temptation, to be any where but at my Office.
I am in it by 6 in the Morning — I am in it at 9 at night. In the Evening, I can be alone at my Office, and no where else.
He purchased a large brick house on Queen Street , not far from his office. Adams, who had been among the more conservative of the Founders, persistently held that while British actions against the colonies had been wrong and misguided, open insurrection was unwarranted and peaceful petition with the ultimate view of remaining part of Great Britain was a better alternative.
Adams wrote in the Gazette that these measures would destroy judicial independence and place the colonial government in closer subjugation to the Crown.
After discontent among members of the legislature, Hutchinson delivered a speech warning that Parliament's powers over the colonies were absolute and that any resistance was illegal.
Subsequently, John Adams, Samuel, and Joseph Hawley drafted a resolution adopted by the House of Representatives threatening independence as an alternative to tyranny.
The resolution argued that the colonists had never been under the sovereignty of Parliament. Their original charter, as well as their allegiance, was exclusive to the King.
The Boston Tea Party , a historic demonstration against the British East India Company 's tea monopoly over American merchants, took place on December 16, The British schooner Dartmouth , loaded with tea to be traded subject to the new Tea Act , had previously dropped anchor in Boston harbor.
The Dartmouth owners briefly retained Adams as legal counsel regarding their liability for the destroyed shipment.
Adams himself applauded the destruction of the tea, calling it the "grandest Event" in the history of the colonial protest movement,  and writing in his diary that the dutied tea's destruction was an "absolutely and indispensably" necessary action.
In , at the instigation of John's cousin Samuel Adams , the First Continental Congress was convened in response to the Intolerable Acts , a series of deeply unpopular measures intended to punish Massachusetts, centralize authority in Britain, and prevent rebellion in other colonies.
Four delegates were chosen by the Massachusetts legislature, including John Adams, who agreed to attend,  despite an emotional plea from his friend Attorney General Jonathan Sewall not to.
Shortly after he arrived in Philadelphia, Adams was placed on the member Grand Committee tasked with drafting a letter of grievances to King George III.
The members of the committee soon split into conservative and radical factions. Adams sought the repeal of objectionable policies, but at this early stage he continued to see benefits in maintaining the ties with Britain.
Adams's absence from home was hard on Abigail, who was left alone to care for the family. She still encouraged her husband in his task, writing: "You cannot be, I know, nor do I wish to see you an inactive Spectator, but if the Sword be drawn I bid adieu to all domestick felicity, and look forward to that Country where there is neither wars nor rumors of War in a firm belief that thro the mercy of its King we shall both rejoice there together.
News of the opening hostilities with the British at the Battles of Lexington and Concord made Adams hope that independence would soon become a reality.
Three days after the battle, he rode into a militia camp and, while reflecting positively on the high spirits of the men, was distressed by their poor condition and lack of discipline.
Publicly, Adams supported "reconciliation if practicable," but privately agreed with Benjamin Franklin 's confidential observation that independence was inevitable.
In June , with a view of promoting union among the colonies against Great Britain, he nominated George Washington of Virginia as commander-in-chief of the army then assembled around Boston.
The well-respected Dickinson refused to greet Adams and he was for a time largely ostracized. Throughout the first half of , Adams grew increasingly impatient with what he perceived to be the slow pace of declaring independence.
Later in the year, he drafted the first set of regulations to govern the provisional navy. Prior to independence being declared, Adams organized and selected a Committee of Five charged with drafting a Declaration of Independence.
He chose himself, Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman. Many years later, Adams recorded his exchange with Jefferson: Jefferson asked, "Why will you not?
You ought to do it. Reason second, I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. You are very much otherwise. Reason third, you can write ten times better than I can.
Accounts written many years later by Jefferson and Adams, although frequently cited, are often contradictory. It was expected to pass, but opponents such as Dickinson made a strong effort to oppose it anyhow.
Jefferson, a poor debater, remained silent while Adams argued for its adoption. Twelve colonies voted in the affirmative, while New York abstained.
Dickinson was absent. During the congress, Adams sat on ninety committees, chairing twenty-five, an unmatched workload among the congressmen.
As Benjamin Rush reported, he was acknowledged "to be the first man in the House. He kept extensive correspondences with a wide range of Continental Army officers concerning supplies, munitions, and tactics.
Adams emphasized to them the role of discipline in keeping an army orderly. His finances were unsteady, and the money that he received as a delegate failed even to cover his own necessary expenses.
However, the crisis caused by the defeat of the American soldiers kept him at his post. After defeating the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island on August 27, British Admiral Richard Howe determined that a strategic advantage was at hand, and requested that Congress send representatives to negotiate peace.
A delegation consisting of Adams, Franklin, and Edward Rutledge met with Howe at the Staten Island Peace Conference on September When Lord Howe stated he could view the American delegates only as British subjects, Adams replied, "Your lordship may consider me in what light you please, Before the signing of the Declaration of Independence in , Adams advocated in Congress that independence was necessary to establish trade, and conversely, trade was essential for the attainment of independence; he specifically urged negotiation of a commercial treaty with France.
He was then appointed, along with Franklin, Dickinson, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, "to prepare a plan of treaties to be proposed to foreign powers.
The Model Treaty authorized a commercial agreement with France but contained no provisions for formal recognition or military assistance. There were provisions for what constituted French territory.
The treaty adhered to the provision that " free ships make free goods ," allowing neutral nations to trade reciprocally while exempting an agreed upon list of contraband.
By late , America's finances were in tatters, and that September a British army had defeated General Washington and captured Philadelphia.
More Americans came to determine that mere commercial ties between the U. The defeat of the British at Saratoga was expected to help induce France to agree to an alliance.
In November, Adams learned that he was to be named commissioner to France, replacing Silas Deane and joining Franklin and Arthur Lee in Paris to negotiate an alliance with the hesitant French.
James Lovell invoked Adams's "inflexible integrity" and the need to have a youthful man who could counterbalance Franklin's advanced age.
On November 27, Adams accepted, wasting no time. He wrote to Lovell that he "should have wanted no motives or arguments" for his acceptance if he "could be sure that the public would be benefited by it.
Lightning injured 19 sailors and killed one. The ship was pursued by several British vessels, with Adams taking up arms to help capture one.
A cannon malfunction killed one of the crew and injured five others. Franklin toned down the letter, but Vergennes still ignored it. Adams received no instructions.
Frustrated by the apparent slight, he departed France with John Quincy on March 8, In late , Adams was appointed as the sole minister charged with negotiations to establish a commercial treaty with Britain and end the war.
He increased his usefulness by mastering the French language. Lee was eventually recalled. Adams closely supervised his sons' education while writing to Abigail about once every ten days.
In contrast to Franklin, Adams viewed the Franco-American alliance pessimistically. The French, he believed, were involved for their own self-interest, and he grew frustrated by what he saw as their sluggishness in providing substantial aid to the Revolution.
The French, Adams wrote, meant to keep their hands "above our chin to prevent us from drowning, but not to lift our heads out of water.
Vergennes summoned Adams for a meeting. In a letter sent in June, he insisted that any fluctuation of the dollar value without an exception for French merchants was unacceptable and requested that Adams write to Congress asking it to "retrace its steps.
The alliance had been made over two years before. During that period, an army under the comte de Rochambeau had been sent to assist Washington, but it had yet to do anything of significance and America was expecting French warships.
These were needed, Adams wrote, to contain the British armies in the port cities and contend with the powerful British Navy. However, the French Navy had been sent not to the United States but to the West Indies to protect French interests there.
France, Adams believed, needed to commit itself more fully to the alliance. Vergennes responded that he would deal only with Franklin, who sent a letter back to Congress critical of Adams.
In mid, Adams traveled to the Dutch Republic. One of the few other existing republics at the time, Adams thought it might be sympathetic to the American cause.
Securing a Dutch loan could increase American independence from France and pressure Britain into peace. At first, Adams had no official status, but in July he was formally given permission to negotiate for a loan and took up residence in Amsterdam in August.
Adams was originally optimistic and greatly enjoyed the city, but soon became disappointed. The Dutch, fearing British retaliation, refused to meet Adams.
Before he had arrived, the British found out about secret aid the Dutch had sent to the Americans, the British authorized reprisals against their ships, which only increased their apprehension.
Word had also reached Europe of American battlefield defeats. After five months of not meeting with a single Dutch official, Adams in early pronounced Amsterdam "the capital of the reign of Mammon.
In the meantime, Adams thwarted an attempt by neutral European powers to mediate the war without consulting the United States. The victory was in large part due to the assistance of the French Navy, which vindicated Adams's stand for increased naval assistance.
News of the American triumph at Yorktown convulsed Europe. In January , after recovering, Adams arrived at The Hague to demand that the States General of the Netherlands answer his petitions.
His efforts stalled, and he took his cause to the people, successfully capitalizing on popular pro-American sentiment to push the States General towards recognizing the U.
Several provinces began recognizing American independence. On April 19, the States General in The Hague formally recognized American independence and acknowledged Adams as ambassador.
In October, he negotiated with the Dutch a treaty of amity and commerce. After negotiating the loan with the Dutch, Adams was re-appointed as the American commissioner to negotiate the war-ending treaty, the Treaty of Paris.
In the final negotiations, securing fishing rights off Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island proved both very important and very difficult.
In response to very strict restrictions proposed by the British, Adams insisted that not only should American fishermen be allowed to travel as close to shore as desired, but that they should be allowed to cure their fish on the shores of Newfoundland.
Britain agreed, and the two sides worked out other provisions afterward. Vergennes was angered when he learned from Franklin of the American duplicity, but did not demand renegotiation, and was supposedly surprised at how much the Americans could extract.
The independent negotiations allowed the French to plead innocence to their Spanish allies, whose demands for Gibraltar might have caused significant problems.
Adams was appointed the first American ambassador to Great Britain in When a counterpart assumed that Adams had family in England, Adams replied, "Neither my father or mother, grandfather or grandmother, great grandfather or great grandmother, nor any other relation that I know of, or care a farthing for, has been in England these one hundred and fifty years; so that you see I have not one drop of blood in my veins but what is American.
After arriving in London from Paris, Adams had his first audience with King George III on June 1, which he meticulously recorded in a letter to Foreign Minister Jay the next day.
The pair's exchange was respectful; Adams promised to do all that he could to restore friendship and cordiality "between People who, tho Seperated [sic] by an Ocean and under different Governments have the Same Language, a Similar Religion and kindred Blood," and the King agreed to "receive with Pleasure, the Assurances of the friendly Dispositions of the United States.
Towards its end, he startled Adams by commenting that "There is an Opinion, among Some People, that you are not the most attached of all Your Countrymen, to the manners of France.
Adams was joined by Abigail while in London. Suffering the hostility of the King's courtiers, they escaped when they could by seeking out Richard Price , minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church and instigator of the debate over the Revolution within Britain.
Adams considered Sewall one of the war's casualties, and Sewall critiqued him as an ambassador:. His abilities are undoubtedly equal to the mechanical parts of his business as ambassador, but this is not enough.
He cannot dance, drink, game, flatter, promise, dress, swear with the gentlemen, and small talk and flirt with the ladies; in short, he has none of those essential arts or ornaments which constitute a courtier.
There are thousands who, with a tenth of his understanding and without a spark of his honesty, would distance him infinitely in any court in Europe.
While in London Adams wrote his three volume A Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America.
It was a response to those he had met in Europe who criticized the government systems of the American states. Adams's tenure in Britain was complicated by both countries failing to follow their treaty obligations.
The American states had been delinquent in paying debts owed to British merchants, and in response, the British refused to vacate forts in the northwest as promised.
Adams's attempts to resolve this dispute failed, and he was often frustrated by a lack of news of progress from home. He then asked Jay to be relieved;  in , he took his leave of George III, who engaged Adams in polite and formal conversation, promising to uphold his end of the treaty once America did the same.
On June 17, Adams arrived back in Massachusetts to a triumphant welcome. He returned to farming life in the months after. The nation's first presidential election was soon to take place.
Because George Washington was widely expected to win the presidency, many felt that the vice presidency should go to a northerner.
Although he made no public comments on the matter, Adams was the primary contender. The person with the most votes would be president and the second would become vice president.
As a result, Washington became the nation's first president , and Adams became its first vice president. Adams finished well ahead of all others except Washington, but was still offended by Washington receiving more than twice as many votes.
After finding out about the manipulation but not Hamilton's role in it, Adams wrote to Benjamin Rush asking whether "Is not my election to this office, in the dark and scurvy manner in which it was done, a curse rather than a blessing?
Although his term started on March 4, , Adams did not begin serving as Vice President of the United States until April 21, because he did not arrive in New York in time.
The sole constitutionally prescribed responsibility of the vice president is to preside over the Senate , where he can cast a tie-breaking vote.
Although the House agreed that the president should be addressed simply as "George Washington, President of the United States", the Senate debated the issue at some length.
Adams favored the adoption of the style of Highness as well as the title of Protector of Their [the United States'] Liberties for the president.
Adams said that the distinctions were necessary because the highest office of the United States must be marked with "dignity and splendor" to command respect.
He was widely derided for his combative nature and stubbornness, especially as he actively debated and lectured the senators. Maclay became Adams's fiercest opponent and repeatedly expressed personal contempt for him in both public and private.
He likened Adams to "a monkey just put into breeches. President " would be used. Washington quietly expressed his displeasure with the fuss and rarely consulted Adams.
By , this undeclared war had ended, and Adams had become significantly less popular with the public. He lost his re-election campaign in , with only a few less electoral votes than Jefferson, who became president.
On October 25, , five days before his 29th birthday, Adams married Abigail Smith , his third cousin. They had six children, Abigail , John Quincy , Susanna , Charles , Thomas Boylston and Elizabeth Adams found himself regularly away from his family, a sacrifice that both he and Abigail saw as important to the cause, though Abigail was often unhappy.
After his presidency, Adams lived quietly with Abigail on their family farm in Quincy, where he continued to write and to correspond with his friend Jefferson.
Both Adams and Jefferson died on July 4, , the 50th anniversary of American independence. Adams's last words were, "Thomas Jefferson survives.
John Quincy Adams, Adams's son, would eventually become the sixth president of the United States, though he was a member of the opposition party, the Democratic-Republicans.
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For the next three years, he taught grammar school in Worcester , Massachusetts, while contemplating his future.
He eventually chose law rather than the ministry and in moved back to Braintree, then soon began practicing law in nearby Boston.
Intelligent, well-read, vivacious , and just as fiercely independent as her new husband, Abigail Adams became a confidante and political partner who helped to stabilize and sustain the ever-irascible and highly volatile Adams throughout his long career.
The letters between them afford an extended glimpse into their deepest thoughts and emotions and provide modern readers with the most revealing record of personal intimacy between husband and wife in the revolutionary era.
Colonel Warren returned last week to Plymouth, so that I shall not hear anything from you until he goes back again, which will not be till the last of this month.
He damped my spirits greatly by telling me that the court had prolonged your stay another month. I was pleasing myself with the thought that you would soon be upon your return.
It is in vain to repine. I hope the public will reap what I sacrifice. However, both his parents were musicians; his mother was a singer with big bands, and his father was a clarinetist.
In the third grade, Adams took up the clarinet, initially taking lessons from his father, Carl Adams, and later with Boston Symphony Orchestra bass clarinetist Felix Viscuglia.
He also played in various local orchestras, concert bands, and marching bands while a student. Adams next enrolled in Harvard University , where he earned a Bachelor of Arts in and a Master of Arts in , studying composition under Leon Kirchner , Roger Sessions , Earl Kim , and David Del Tredici.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Adams was the first student at Harvard to be allowed to write a musical composition for his senior thesis. After graduating, Adams received a copy of John Cage 's book Silence: Lectures and Writings from his mother.
Largely shaken of his loyalty to modernism, he was inspired to move to San Francisco,  where he taught at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music from until ,  teaching classes and directing the school's New Music Ensemble.
In the early s, Adams wrote several pieces of electronic music for a homemade modular synthesizer he called the "Studebaker". Adams served as musical producer for a number of series for PBS , including the award-winning series, The Adams Chronicles in and In , Adams wrote the half-hour-long solo piano piece Phrygian Gates , which he later called "my first mature composition, my official 'opus one'",  as well as its much shorter companion piece, China Gates.
The next year, he finished Shaker Loops , a string septet based on an earlier, unsuccessful string quartet called Wavemaker. In , he finished his first orchestral work, Common Tones in Simple Time , which was premiered by the San Francisco Conservatory of Music Orchestra under Adams' baton.
In , Adams became the New Music Adviser for the San Francisco Symphony and created the symphony's New and Unusual Music concerts. He followed this up with the three-movement, orchestral piece without strings , Grand Pianola Music That summer, he wrote the score for Matter of Heart , a documentary about psychoanalyst Carl Jung , a score he later derided as being "of stunning mediocrity".
Without dance, the electronic piece alone is called Light Over Water. After an eighteen-month period of writer's block , Adams wrote his three-movement, orchestral piece Harmonielehre —85 , which he described as "a statement of belief in the power of tonality at a time when I was uncertain about its future.
From to , Adams composed his first opera , Nixon in China , with libretto by Alice Goodman , based on Richard Nixon 's visit to China.
The opera marked the first collaboration between Adams and theatre director Peter Sellars , who had proposed it to Adams in Adams has subsequently worked with Sellars on all of his operas.
During this time, Adams also wrote The Chairman Dances , which he described as an "'out-take' of Act III of Nixon in China ", to fulfill a long-delayed commission for the Milwaukee Symphony.
Adams wrote two orchestral pieces in Fearful Symmetries , a minute work in the same style as Nixon in China , and The Wound-Dresser , a setting of Walt Whitman 's poem of the same title, written when Whitman was volunteering at a military hospital during the American Civil War.
The Wound-Dresser is scored for baritone voice, two flutes or two piccolos , two oboes, clarinet, bass clarinet, two bassoons, two horns, trumpet or piccolo trumpet , timpani, synthesizer, and strings.
During this time, Adams established an international career as a conductor. From to , he served as conductor and music advisor for the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra.
He completed his second opera, The Death of Klinghoffer , in , again working with librettist Alice Goodman and director Peter Sellars. The opera is based on the hijacking of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro by Palestinian terrorists and details the murder of passenger Leon Klinghoffer , a retired, physically disabled American Jew.
The opera has generated controversy, including allegations that it is antisemitic and glorifies terrorism. Adams' next piece, Chamber Symphony , is for a member chamber orchestra.
Written in three movements, the work is inspired by an unlikely combination of sources: Arnold Schoenberg 's Chamber Symphony No.
The next year, he composed his Violin Concerto for American violinist Jorja Fleezanis. Lasting a little more than half an hour, this work is also in three movements: a "long extended rhapsody for the violin" is followed by a slow chaconne titled "Body through which the dream flows", a phrase from a poem by Robert Haas , and the piece ends with an energetic toccare.
In , he completed I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky , a stage piece with libretto by poet June Jordan and staging by Peter Sellars.
Inspired by musicals, Adams referred to the piece as a "songplay in two acts". Hallelujah Junction is a three-movement composition for two piano , which employs variations of a repeated two-note rhythm.
The intervals between the notes remain the same through much of the piece. Grant Rutherford B. Hayes James Garfield Chester A. Arthur Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison Grover Cleveland William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt William Howard Taft Woodrow Wilson Warren G.
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Abigail "Nabby" , John Quincy , Susanna, Charles , Thomas and Elizabeth stillborn.1/30/ · John Adams () was a leader of the American Revolution, and served as the second U.S. president from to Read facts about his diplomacy and leadership as well as about his wife. John Adams, Jr. (lahir di Quincy, Massachusetts, Britania Amerika, 30 Oktober – meninggal di Quincy, Massachusetts, Amerika Serikat, 4 Juli pada umur 90 tahun) adalah Presiden Amerika Serikat (–) bistrotchezmaurice.com juga menjabat Wakil Presiden Amerika Serikat (–) yang pertama. Sebagai politikus, ia dikenang sebagai Bapak Bangsa (Founding Pendahulu: George Washington. 3/16/ · With Paul Giamatti, Laura Linney, John Dossett, Stephen Dillane. The life of one of the USA's Founding Fathers, its second President, and his role in the nation's first 50 years/10(K).