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The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25 as Christmas. The widely used calendar era " AD ", from the Latin anno Domini "year of the Lord" , and the equivalent alternative " CE ", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus.
Jesus is also revered outside of Christianity. In Islam , Jesus commonly transliterated as Isa is considered one of God 's important prophets and the messiah.
The Quran states that Jesus never claimed divinity. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill messianic prophecies , and was neither divine nor resurrected.
A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name , sometimes followed by the phrase "son of [father's name]" , or the individual's hometown.
The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus. Since the early period of Christianity , Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ".
Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term Christian meaning a follower of Christ has been in use since the 1st century.
Portals: Christianity Bible. The four canonical gospels Matthew , Mark , Luke , and John are the foremost sources for the life and message of Jesus.
Some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament.
These include the Gospel of Thomas , Gospel of Peter , and Gospel of Judas , the Apocryphon of James , and many other apocryphal writings.
Most scholars conclude that these are written much later and are less reliable accounts than the canonical gospels. The canonical gospels are four accounts, each written by a different author.
The authors of the Gospels are all anonymous, attributed by tradition to the four evangelists , each with close ties to Jesus:  Mark by John Mark , an associate of Peter;  Matthew by one of Jesus' disciples;  Luke by a companion of Paul mentioned in a few epistles;  and John by another of Jesus' disciples,  the " beloved disciple ".
One important aspect of the study of the Gospels is the literary genre under which they fall. Genre "is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings".
Some recent studies suggest that the genre of the Gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography. Concerning the accuracy of the accounts, viewpoints run the gamut from considering them as inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus,  to doubting whether they are historically reliable on a number of points,  to considering them to provide very little historical information about his life beyond the basics.
According to the Marcan priority , the first to be written was the Gospel of Mark written AD 60—75 , followed by the Gospel of Matthew AD 65—85 , the Gospel of Luke AD 65—95 , and the Gospel of John AD 75— Since Matthew and Luke also share some content not found in Mark, many scholars explain this by assuming that another source commonly called the " Q source " was used by these two authors in addition to Mark.
The Synoptics emphasize different aspects of Jesus. In Mark, Jesus is the Son of God whose mighty works demonstrate the presence of God's Kingdom.
The prologue to the Gospel of John identifies Jesus as an incarnation of the divine Word Logos. He not only speaks God's Word; he is God's Word.
Here he is the Bread of Life, the Light of the World, the True Vine and more. In general, the authors of the New Testament showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age.
Jesus was Jewish,  born to Mary , wife of Joseph Matthew 1 ; Luke 2. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke offer two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus.
Matthew traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham through David. Matthew has twenty-seven generations from David to Joseph, whereas Luke has forty-two, with almost no overlap between the names on the two lists.
Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' birth, especially that Jesus was born to a virgin named Mary in Bethlehem in fulfillment of prophecy.
Luke's account emphasizes events before the birth of Jesus and centers on Mary, while Matthew's mostly covers those after the birth and centers on Joseph.
In Matthew, Joseph is troubled because Mary, his betrothed, is pregnant Matthew — 20 , but in the first of Joseph's three dreams an angel assures him not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife, because her child was conceived by the Holy Spirit.
They find Jesus in a house in Bethlehem. Jesus is now a child and not an infant. Matthew focuses on an event after the Luke Nativity where Jesus was an infant.
In Matthew Herod the Great hears of Jesus' birth and, wanting him killed, orders the murders of male infants in Bethlehem under age of 2.
But an angel warns Joseph in his second dream, and the family flees to Egypt —later to return and settle in Nazareth.
In Luke —38 , Mary learns from the angel Gabriel that she will conceive and bear a child called Jesus through the action of the Holy Spirit.
While there Mary gives birth to Jesus, and as they have found no room in the inn, she places the newborn in a manger Luke —7. An angel announces the birth to a group of shepherds , who go to Bethlehem to see Jesus, and subsequently spread the news abroad Luke — After the presentation of Jesus at the Temple , Joseph, Mary and Jesus return to Nazareth.
Jesus' childhood home is identified in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth in Galilee , where he lived with his family.
Although Joseph appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood, no mention is made of him thereafter. The Gospel of Mark reports that Jesus comes into conflict with his neighbors and family.
Jesus responds that his followers are his true family. In John, Mary follows Jesus to his crucifixion, and he expresses concern over her well-being John — When Jesus is presented as a baby in the temple per Jewish Law, a man named Simeon says to Mary and Joseph that Jesus "shall stand as a sign of contradiction, while a sword will pierce your own soul.
Then the secret thoughts of many will come to light" Luke — Several years later, when Jesus goes missing on a visit to Jerusalem , his parents find him in the temple sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking questions, and the people are amazed at his understanding and answers; Mary scolds Jesus for going missing, to which Jesus replies that he must "be in his father's house" Luke — The Synoptic accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist.
Likewise, Luke says that John had the spirit and power of Elijah Luke In Mark, John baptizes Jesus, and as he comes out of the water he sees the Holy Spirit descending to him like a dove and he hears a voice from heaven declaring him to be God's Son Mark — This is one of two events described in the Gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration.
Jesus then begins his ministry after John's arrest Mark Jesus' baptism in Matthew is similar. Here, before Jesus' baptism, John protests, saying, "I need to be baptized by you" Matthew Jesus instructs him to carry on with the baptism "to fulfill all righteousness" Matthew Matthew also details the three temptations that Satan offers Jesus in the wilderness Matthew — In Luke, the Holy Spirit descends as a dove after everyone has been baptized and Jesus is praying Luke — John implicitly recognizes Jesus from prison after sending his followers to ask about him Luke — Jesus' baptism and temptation serve as preparation for his public ministry.
The Gospel of John leaves out Jesus' baptism and temptation. Before John is imprisoned, Jesus leads his followers to baptize disciples as well John —24 , and they baptize more people than John John The Synoptics depict two distinct geographical settings in Jesus' ministry.
The first takes place north of Judea , in Galilee , where Jesus conducts a successful ministry; and the second shows Jesus rejected and killed when he travels to Jerusalem.
John depicts Jesus' ministry as largely taking place in and around Jerusalem, rather than in Galilee; and Jesus' divine identity is openly proclaimed and immediately recognized.
Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus into several stages. The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus returns to Galilee from the Judaean Desert after rebuffing the temptation of Satan.
Jesus preaches around Galilee, and in Matthew —20 , his first disciples , who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him.
As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about a third of the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan River John — This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse.
Near the beginning of his ministry, Jesus appoints twelve apostles. In Matthew and Mark, despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, Jesus' first four apostles, who were fishermen, are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets and boats to do so Matthew —22 , Mark — In John, Jesus' first two apostles were disciples of John the Baptist.
The Baptist sees Jesus and calls him the Lamb of God ; the two hear this and follow Jesus. Also, in Luke —16 Jesus sends seventy or seventy-two of his followers in pairs to prepare towns for his prospective visit.
They are instructed to accept hospitality, heal the sick and spread the word that the Kingdom of God is coming. In Mark, the disciples are notably obtuse.
They fail to understand Jesus' miracles Mark —41 , Mark , his parables Mark , or what "rising from the dead" would mean Mark — When Jesus is later arrested, they desert him.
In the Synoptics, Jesus teaches extensively, often in parables ,  about the Kingdom of God or, in Matthew, the Kingdom of Heaven.
The Kingdom is described as both imminent Mark and already present in the ministry of Jesus Luke Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message Mark — Jesus talks of the " Son of Man ," an apocalyptic figure who would come to gather the chosen.
Jesus calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God. And a second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself" Matthew — Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving your enemies , refraining from hatred and lust, turning the other cheek , and forgiving people who have sinned against you Matthew 5—7.
John's Gospel presents the teachings of Jesus not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation.
John the Baptist, for example, states in John : "He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure.
The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the Father who dwells in me does his works. Approximately thirty parables form about one third of Jesus' recorded teachings.
But the one who does not have will be deprived even more. In the gospel accounts, Jesus devotes a large portion of his ministry performing miracles , especially healings.
Jesus states that his miracles are from a divine source. When Jesus' opponents suddenly accuse him of performing exorcisms by the power of Beelzebul , the prince of demons, Jesus counters that he performs them by the "Spirit of God" Matthew or "finger of God", arguing that all logic suggests that Satan would not let his demons assist the Children of God because it would divide Satan's house and bring his kingdom to desolation; furthermore, he asks his opponents that if he exorcises by Beel'zebub , "by whom do your sons cast them out?
In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity. Also, in the Synoptic Gospels, the crowds regularly respond to Jesus' miracles with awe and press on him to heal their sick.
In John's Gospel, Jesus is presented as unpressured by the crowds, who often respond to his miracles with trust and faith.
In the cleansing of ten lepers and the raising of Jairus' daughter , for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith.
At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels are two significant events: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus.
In his Confession, Peter tells Jesus, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God. In the Transfiguration Matthew —9 , Mark —8 , and Luke —36 ,    Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white.
The description of the last week of the life of Jesus often called Passion Week occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels,  starting with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his Crucifixion.
In the Synoptics, the last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey through Perea and Judea that Jesus began in Galilee.
Jesus next expels the money changers from the Second Temple , accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities.
Jesus then prophesies about the coming destruction, including false prophets, wars, earthquakes, celestial disorders, persecution of the faithful, the appearance of an "abomination of desolation," and unendurable tribulations Mark — The mysterious "Son of Man," he says, will dispatch angels to gather the faithful from all parts of the earth Mark — Jesus warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers Mark — Jesus comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they question his authority and when he criticizes them and calls them hypocrites.
The Gospel of John recounts of two other feasts in which Jesus taught in Jerusalem before the Passion Week John — This potent sign  increases the tension with authorities,  who conspire to kill him John John next recounts Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples.
The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his 12 apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is mentioned in all four canonical gospels; Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians —26 also refers to it.
Matthew —25 and John —27 specifically identify Judas as the traitor. In the Synoptics, Jesus takes bread, breaks it, and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you".
He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood" Luke — In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning.
In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper; Jesus also predicts that all his disciples will desert him Matthew —34 , Mark — Chapters 14—17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content.
In the Synoptics, Jesus and his disciples go to the garden Gethsemane , where Jesus prays to be spared his coming ordeal. Then Judas comes with an armed mob, sent by the chief priests, scribes and elders.
He kisses Jesus to identify him to the crowd, which then arrests Jesus. In an attempt to stop them, an unnamed disciple of Jesus uses a sword to cut off the ear of a man in the crowd.
After Jesus' arrest, his disciples go into hiding, and Peter, when questioned, thrice denies knowing Jesus. After the third denial, Peter hears the rooster crow and recalls Jesus' prediction about his denial.
Peter then weeps bitterly. In John —11 , Jesus does not pray to be spared his crucifixion, as the gospel portrays him as scarcely touched by such human weakness.
The gospel identifies Peter as the disciple who used the sword, and Jesus rebukes him for it. After his arrest, Jesus is taken to the Sanhedrin , a Jewish judicial body.
Early the next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus away into their council. During the trials Jesus speaks very little, mounts no defense, and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the priests' questions, prompting an officer to slap him.
In Matthew Jesus' unresponsiveness leads Caiaphas to ask him, "Have you no answer? In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous:   in Matthew he responds, "You have said so", and in Luke he says, "You say that I am".
The Jewish elders take Jesus to Pilate's Court and ask the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate , to judge and condemn Jesus for various allegations, accusing him of blasphemy , perverting the nation, forbidding the payment of tribute, inciting sedition against Rome , sorcery , claiming to be the King of the Jews, the Son of God, and a savior to the world.
In John Jesus states, "My kingdom is not from this world", but he does not unequivocally deny being the King of the Jews.
Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put an expensive robe on him to make him look like a king, and return him to Pilate,  who then calls together the Jewish elders and announces that he has "not found this man guilty".
Observing a Passover custom of the time, Pilate allows one prisoner chosen by the crowd to be released.
The soldiers place a Crown of Thorns on Jesus' head and ridicule him as the King of the Jews. They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary ,  also called Golgotha, for crucifixion.
Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. After the trials, Jesus is led to Calvary carrying his cross ; the route traditionally thought to have been taken is known as the Via Dolorosa.
The three Synoptic Gospels indicate that Simon of Cyrene assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so.
According to Matthew and Mark, he refuses it. The soldiers then crucify Jesus and cast lots for his clothes. Above Jesus' head on the cross is Pilate's inscription, "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.
Two convicted thieves are crucified along with Jesus. In Matthew and Mark, both thieves mock Jesus. In Luke, one of them rebukes Jesus, while the other defends him.
In John, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the beloved disciple were at the crucifixion. Jesus tells the beloved disciple to take care of his mother John — The Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs a procedure designed to hasten death in a crucifixion , but they do not break those of Jesus, as he is already dead John In John , one soldier pierces Jesus' side with a lance , and blood and water flow out.
In Matthew —54 , an earthquake breaks open tombs. In Matthew and Mark, terrified by the events, a Roman centurion states that Jesus was the Son of God.
On the same day, Joseph of Arimathea , with Pilate's permission and with Nicodemus ' help, removes Jesus' body from the cross , wraps him in a clean cloth, and buries him in his new rock-hewn tomb.
Mary Magdalene alone in the Gospel of John, but accompanied by other women in the Synoptics goes to Jesus' tomb on Sunday morning and is surprised to find it empty.
Despite Jesus' teaching, the disciples had not understood that Jesus would rise again. Jesus' ascension into Heaven is described in Luke —53 , Acts —11 and mentioned in 1 Timothy In the Acts of the Apostles , forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight".
The Acts of the Apostles describes several appearances of Jesus after his Ascension. In Acts , Stephen gazes into heaven and sees "Jesus standing at the right hand of God" just before his death.
In Acts —18 , Jesus instructs Ananias of Damascus in a vision to heal Paul. After Jesus' life, his followers, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles , were all Jews either by birth or conversion , for which the biblical term " proselyte " is used,  and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians.
The early Gospel message was spread orally , probably in Aramaic ,  but almost immediately also in Greek. After the conversion of Paul the Apostle , he claimed the title of "Apostle to the Gentiles".
Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. Numerous quotations in the New Testament and other Christian writings of the first centuries, indicate that early Christians generally used and revered the Hebrew Bible the Tanakh as religious text , mostly in the Greek Septuagint or Aramaic Targum translations.
Early Christians wrote many religious works, including the ones included in the canon of the New Testament. The canonical texts, which have become the main sources used by historians to try to understand the historical Jesus and sacred texts within Christianity, were probably written between 50 and AD.
Prior to the Enlightenment , the Gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the Gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the Gospels and the Jesus of history.
Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus was accepted as historical.
In AD 6, Judea , Idumea , and Samaria were transformed from a client kingdom of the Roman Empire into an imperial province, also called Judea.
A Roman prefect , rather than a client king, ruled the land. The prefect ruled from Caesarea Maritima , leaving Jerusalem to be run by the High Priest of Israel.
As an exception, the prefect came to Jerusalem during religious festivals, when religious and patriotic enthusiasm sometimes inspired unrest or uprisings.
Gentile lands surrounded the Jewish territories of Judea and Galilee , but Roman law and practice allowed Jews to remain separate legally and culturally.
Galilee was evidently prosperous, and poverty was limited enough that it did not threaten the social order. This was the era of Hellenistic Judaism , which combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Hellenistic Greek culture.
Until the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Muslim conquests of the Eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria Egypt and Antioch now Southern Turkey , the two main Greek urban settlements of the Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the 4th century BCE in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period , where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists sometimes called Judaizers.
The Hebrew Bible was translated from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic into Jewish Koine Greek ; the Targum translations into Aramaic were also generated during this era, both due to the decline of knowledge of Hebrew.
Jews based their faith and religious practice on the Torah , five books said to have been given by God to Moses. The three prominent religious parties were the Pharisees , the Essenes , and the Sadducees.
Together these parties represented only a small fraction of the population. Most Jews looked forward to a time that God would deliver them from their pagan rulers, possibly through war against the Romans.
New Testament scholars face a formidable challenge when they analyze the canonical Gospels. Scholars use a number of criteria, such as the criterion of independent attestation , the criterion of coherence , and the criterion of discontinuity to judge the historicity of events.
Mark, which is most likely the earliest written gospel, has been considered for many decades the most historically accurate. The non-canonical Gospel of Thomas might be an independent witness to many of Jesus' parables and aphorisms.
For example, Thomas confirms that Jesus blessed the poor and that this saying circulated independently before being combined with similar sayings in the Q source.
Early non-Christian sources that attest to the historical existence of Jesus include the works of the historians Josephus and Tacitus.
Scholars generally consider Tacitus' reference to the execution of Jesus to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source.
Non-Christian sources are valuable in two ways. First, they show that even neutral or hostile parties never show any doubt that Jesus actually existed.
Second, they present a rough picture of Jesus that is compatible with that found in the Christian sources: that Jesus was a teacher, had a reputation as a miracle worker, had a brother James, and died a violent death.
Archaeology helps scholars better understand Jesus' social world. Jesus was a Galilean Jew,  born around the beginning of the 1st century, who died in 30 or 33 AD in Judea.
The Gospels offer several indications concerning the year of Jesus' birth. Matthew associates the birth of Jesus with the reign of Herod the Great , who died around 4 BC, and Luke mentions that Herod was on the throne shortly before the birth of Jesus,   although this gospel also associates the birth with the Census of Quirinius which took place ten years later.
The date range for Jesus' ministry have been estimated using several different approaches. A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus.
Most scholars agree that he died in 30 or 33 AD. The dates for Paul's conversion and ministry can be determined by analyzing the Pauline epistles and the Acts of the Apostles.
The most widely accepted dates derived from this method are April 7, 30 AD, and April 3, 33 AD both Julian. Scholars have reached a limited consensus on the basics of Jesus' life.
Many scholars agree that Joseph, Jesus' father, died before Jesus began his ministry. Joseph is not mentioned at all in the Gospels during Jesus' ministry.
Joseph's death would explain why in Mark , Jesus' neighbors refer to Jesus as the "son of Mary" sons were usually identified by their fathers. According to Theissen and Merz, it is common for extraordinary charismatic leaders , such as Jesus, to come into conflict with their ordinary families.
According to E. Sanders, the birth narratives in Matthew and Luke are the clearest case of invention in the Gospel narratives of Jesus' life.
Both accounts have Jesus born in Bethlehem , in accordance with Jewish salvation history, and both have him growing up in Nazareth. But Sanders points that the two Gospels report completely different and irreconcilable explanations for how that happened.
Luke's account of a census in which everyone returned to their ancestral cities is not plausible. Matthew's account is more plausible, but the story reads as though it was invented to identify Jesus as like a new Moses , and the historian Josephus reports Herod the Great's brutality without ever mentioning that he massacred little boys.
Sanders says that the genealogies of Jesus are based not on historical information but on the authors' desire to show that Jesus was the universal Jewish savior.
Most modern scholars consider Jesus' baptism to be a definite historical fact, along with his crucifixion. Dunn states that they "command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.
Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and did not preach or study elsewhere. According to Ehrman, Jesus taught that a coming kingdom was everyone's proper focus, not anything in this life.
The Gospels portray Jesus teaching in well-defined sessions, such as the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew or the parallel Sermon on the Plain in Luke.
According to Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, these teaching sessions include authentic teachings of Jesus, but the scenes were invented by the respective evangelists to frame these teachings, which had originally been recorded without context.
First, he attributed them to the faith of those healed. Second, he connected them to end times prophecy. Jesus chose twelve disciples  the "Twelve" , evidently as an apocalyptic message.
In Ehrman's view, no Christians would have invented a line from Jesus, promising rulership to the disciple who betrayed him.
While others sometimes respond to Jesus with complete faith, his disciples are puzzled and doubtful. Sanders says that Jesus' mission was not about repentance , although he acknowledges that this opinion is unpopular.
He argues that repentance appears as a strong theme only in Luke, that repentance was John the Baptist 's message, and that Jesus' ministry would not have been scandalous if the sinners he ate with had been repentant.
Jesus taught that an apocalyptic figure, the " Son of Man ", would soon come on clouds of glory to gather the elect, or chosen ones Mark —27, Matthew —31, Luke — He referred to himself as a " son of man " in the colloquial sense of "a person", but scholars do not know whether he also meant himself when he referred to the heavenly "Son of Man".
Paul the Apostle and other early Christians interpreted the "Son of Man" as the risen Jesus. The Gospels refer to Jesus not only as a messiah but in the absolute form as "the Messiah" or, equivalently, "the Christ".
In early Judaism, this absolute form of the title is not found, but only phrases such as "his messiah".
The tradition is ambiguous enough to leave room for debate as to whether Jesus defined his eschatological role as that of the messiah. Around AD 30, Jesus and his followers traveled from Galilee to Jerusalem to observe Passover.
Sanders associates it with Jesus' prophecy that the Temple would be totally demolished. His words as recorded in the Synoptic gospels and Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians do not entirely agree, but this symbolic meal appears to have pointed to Jesus' place in the coming Kingdom of God when very probably Jesus knew he was about to be killed, although he may have still hoped that God might yet intervene.
The Gospels say that Jesus was betrayed to the authorities by a disciple, and many scholars consider this report to be highly reliable.
After Jesus' death, his followers said he was restored to life, although exact details of their experiences are unclear. The gospel reports contradict each other, possibly suggesting competition among those claiming to have seen him first rather than deliberate fraud.
Michael White suggests that inconsistencies in the Gospels reflect differences in the agendas of their unknown authors. Modern research on the historical Jesus has not led to a unified picture of the historical figure, partly because of the variety of academic traditions represented by the scholars.
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Lowe is letting his id run wild: he's dispensed with any remnants of good taste -- well, apart from the gorgeous "Tonight," the only time the album dips into ballads -- and indulged in a second adolescence, bashing out three-chord rockers and cracking jokes with both his words and music.
This reckless rock and pop works not just because the tracks crackle with excitement -- not for nothing did Nick earn the name "Basher" in this period; he cut quickly and moved on, the performances sounding infectious and addictive -- but because it's written with the skill that Lowe developed in the Brinsleys.
He knows how to twist words around, knows how to mine black humor in "Marie Provost," knows how to splice "Nutted by Reality" into a brilliant McCartney parody, knows how to pull off the old Chuck Berry trick of spinning a tune into two songs, as he turns "Shake and Pop" into the faster, wilder "They Called It Rock.
It is the first post-modern pop record in how it plays as it builds upon tradition and how it's all tied together by Lowe 's irrepressible irreverence.
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