Kaschmir (Devanagari: कश्मीर, Urdu: کشمیر, Kaśmīr, auch Kashmir) ist eine Region im Heute teilt sich das im Himalaya gelegene Kaschmir in den indischen Unionsterritorien Juli die Entlassung Indiens in die Unabhängigkeit und die Bildung der Dominions Indien und Pakistan beschloss, wurde Kaschmir. an Afghanistan, China, Indien und Pakistan. Kaschmir umfaßte ursprünglich die. Gebiete des heutigen Aksai Chin, Azad Kaschmir, Jammu, das Hochtal von. Seit der Unabhängigkeit der früheren Kolonie Britisch-Indien und einem Krieg zwischen Indien und Pakistan ist Kaschmir geteilt.
Warum sich Indien und Pakistan in Kaschmir bekriegenSeit der Unabhängigkeit der früheren Kolonie Britisch-Indien und einem Krieg zwischen Indien und Pakistan ist Kaschmir geteilt. Interesse das Britische Empire auf dem indischen Subkontinent Postkoloniale Phase. 4. Der Staat Kaschmir – Streitobjekt zwischen Indien und Pakistan Im Zentrum steht der alte Zankapfel: die Region Kaschmir. Pakistan wirft über dem indischen Teil Kaschmirs Bomben ab. Bei der Operation.
Indien Pakistan Kaschmir ‘Continue to live in fear’ VideoIndien: Der Zorn von Kaschmir - ARTE Reportage Nachdem muslimische Freischärler Michał Mikołajczak das Land eingedrungen waren, um so den Anschluss an Pakistan zu erzwingen, erklärte er jedoch am Die Regierung in Islamabad wies den indischen Botschafter Apple Watch Reset. Die bewaffneten Auseinandersetzungen Sven Martinek Julia Martinek pakistanischen und indischen Einheiten in Kaschmir begannen am Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
Indien Pakistan Kaschmir Free-TV luft die Serie bei RTL2. - Ursachen und HintergründeKonfliktregionen: Indien - Pakistan. Why is there conflict between India and Pakistan over. 2/28/ · Pakistan says it has shot down two Indian military jets and captured a pilot in a major escalation between the nuclear powers over Kashmir. India said it had lost one MiG fighter and demanded. 1/25/ · Indian army helicopter crashes in Kashmir hours after Pakistan violates ceasefire AN INDIAN army helicopter has crash-landed along the disputed Kashmir border just hours after the Pakistani army.
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Geography Pakistan Kashmir has a total area of 13, sq. Climate In Summer the northern and central parts of Pakistan Kashmir are moderately hot while the southern part is extremely hot.
Population Pakistan Kashmir has a total populatin is around 4. Political The President of Pakistan Kashmir is the head of State while the Prime Minister supported by a Council of Ministers is the Chief Executive.
Conclusion Both Indian and Pakistan Kashmir have an uncertain future as independent entities. Author Recent Posts. Shah S.
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Pakistan forces seen launching attack in north Kashmir. Firing is understood to have then erupted from both sides. Kathua district police chief Shailendra Kumar Mishra confirmed the incident.
England get Pope boost but Crawley a doubt after freak injury. January 29, Indian, Pakistani delegates clash over Kashmir at UN.
By APP. Previous article Epaper — January 29 LHR Next article US says prepared to prosecute acquitted Omar Sheikh in Pearl murder case.
LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply. Please enter your comment! This was an unsuccessful attempt. Nehru's withdrawal from the plebiscite option came as a major blow to all concerned.
Indian writer Nirad C. Chaudhuri has observed that Pakistan's acceptance of Western support ensured its survival.
For scholar Wayne Wilcox, Pakistan was able to find external support to counter "Hindu superiority", returning to the group security position of the early 20th century.
In , troops from the People's Republic of China and India clashed in territory claimed by both. China won a swift victory in the war.
Aksai Chin , part of which was under Chinese jurisdiction before the war,     remained under Chinese control since then.
Another smaller area, the Trans-Karakoram , was demarcated as the Line of Control LOC between China and Pakistan, although some of the territory on the Chinese side is claimed by India to be part of Kashmir.
The line that separates India from China in this region is known as the " Line of Actual Control ". Following its failure to seize Kashmir in , Pakistan supported numerous 'covert cells' in Kashmir using operatives based in its New Delhi embassy.
After its military pact with the United States in the s, it intensively studied guerrilla warfare through engagement with the US military.
In , it decided that the conditions were ripe for a successful guerilla war in Kashmir. Code named ' Operation Gibraltar ', companies were dispatched into Indian-administered Kashmir, the majority of whose members were razakars volunteers and mujahideen recruited from Pakistan-administered Kashmir and trained by the Army.
These irregular forces were supported by officers and men from the paramilitary Northern Light Infantry and Azad Kashmir Rifles as well as commandos from the Special Services Group.
About 30, infiltrators are estimated to have been dispatched in August as part of the 'Operation Gibraltar'. The plan was for the infiltrators to mingle with the local populace and incite them to rebellion.
Meanwhile, guerilla warfare would commence, destroying bridges, tunnels and highways, as well as Indian Army installations and airfields, creating conditions for an 'armed insurrection' in Kashmir.
However, the 'Operation Gibraltar' ended in failure as the Kashmiris did not revolt. Instead, they turned in infiltrators to the Indian authorities in substantial numbers, and the Indian Army ended up fighting the Pakistani Army regulars.
Pakistan claimed that the captured men were Kashmiri 'freedom fighters', a claim contradicted by the international media. In response, India broadened the war by launching an attack on Pakistani Punjab across the international border.
The war lasted until 23 September, ending in a stalemate. Following the Tashkent Agreement , both the sides withdrew to their pre-conflict positions, and agreed not to interfere in each other's internal affairs.
The Indo-Pakistani War of led to a loss for Pakistan and a military surrender in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was created as a separate state with India's support and India emerged as a clear regional power in South Asia.
A bilateral summit was held at Simla as a follow-up to the war, where India pushed for peace in South Asia. India was ready to return them in exchange for a "durable solution" to the Kashmir issue.
Diplomat J. Dixit states that the negotiations at Simla were painful and tortuous, and almost broke down. The deadlock was broken in a personal meeting between the Prime Ministers Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Indira Gandhi , where Bhutto acknowledged that the Kashmir issue should be finally resolved and removed as a hurdle in India-Pakistan relations; that the cease-fire line, to be renamed the Line of Control , could be gradually converted into a de jure border between India and Pakistan; and that he would take steps to integrate the Pakistani-controlled portions of Jammu and Kashmir into the federal territories of Pakistan.
Accordingly, the Simla Agreement was formulated and signed by the two countries, whereby the countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations and to maintain the sanctity of the Line of Control.
Multilateral negotiations were not ruled out, but they were conditional upon both sides agreeing to them. However Pakistan reinterpreted the wording in the light of a reference to the "UN charter" in the agreement, and maintained that it could still approach the UN.
The United States, United Kingdom and most Western governments agree with India's interpretation. The Simla Agreement also stated that the two sides would meet again for establishing durable peace.
Reportedly Bhutto asked for time to prepare the people of Pakistan and the National Assembly for a final settlement.
Indian commentators state that he reneged on the promise. Bhutto told the National Assembly on 14 July that he forged an equal agreement from an unequal beginning and that he did not compromise on the right of self-determination for Jammu and Kashmir.
The envisioned meeting never occurred. Political movements in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir started in , earlier than in any other princely state of India.
In that year, Sheikh Abdullah , a Kashmiri, and Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas , a Jammuite, led the founding of the All-Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference in order to agitate for the rights of Muslims in the state.
Three years later, rifts developed within the Conference owing to political, regional and ideological differences. A faction of the party's leadership grew disenchanted with Abdullah's leanings towards Nehru and the Congress, and his secularisation of Kashmiri politics.
These developments indicated fissures between the ethnic Kashmiris and Jammuites, as well as between the Hindus and Muslims of Jammu.
In , the National Conference launched the 'Quit Kashmir' movement, asking the Maharaja to hand the power over to the people. The movement came under criticism from the Muslim Conference, who charged that Abdullah was doing it to boost his own popularity, waning because of his pro-India stance.
Instead, the Muslim Conference launched a 'campaign of action' similar to Muslim League's programme in British India.
Both Abdullah and Abbas were imprisoned. The Dogra Hindus of Jammu were originally organised under the banner of All Jammu and Kashmir Rajya Hindu Sabha , with Prem Nath Dogra as a leading member.
He established branches of the RSS in Jammu and later in the Kashmir Valley. Prem Nath Dogra was also the chairman sanghchalak of the RSS in Jammu.
However, following the communal upheaval of the Partition and the tribal invasion, its position changed to supporting the accession of the state to India and, subsequently, full integration of Jammu with India.
Article was drafted in the Indian constitution granting special autonomous status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir , as per Instrument of Accession.
This article specifies that the State must concur in the application of laws by Indian parliament, except those that pertain to Communications, Defence and Foreign Affairs.
Central Government could not exercise its power to interfere in any other areas of governance of the state.
In a broadcast on 2 November , Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru announced that the fate of Kashmir would ultimately be decided by the people, once law and order was established, through a referendum "held under international auspices like the United Nations.
Sheikh Abdullah took oath as Prime Minister of the state on 17 March In , the Indian government obliged Hari Singh to leave Jammu and Kashmir and yield the government to Sheikh Abdullah.
Karan Singh , the son of the erstwhile Maharajah Hari Singh was made the Sadr-i-Riyasat Constitutional Head of State and the Governor of the state.
Elections were held for the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir in , with 75 seats allocated for the Indian administered part of Kashmir, and 25 seats left reserved for the Pakistan administered part.
Sheikh Abdullah's National Conference won all 75 seats in a rigged election. Sheikh initially wanted the Constituent Assembly to decide the State's accession.
But this was not agreed to by Nehru, who stated that such "underhand dealing" would be very bad, as the matter was being decided by the UN. Sheikh Abdullah was said to have ruled the state in an undemocratic and authoritarian manner during this period.
According to historian Zutshi, in the late s, most Kashmiri Muslims in Indian Kashmir were still debating the value of the state's association with India or Pakistan.
By the s, she says, the National Conference government's repressive measures and the Indian state's seeming determination to settle the state's accession to India without a reference to the people of the state brought Kashmiri Muslims to extol the virtues of Pakistan and condemn India's high-handedness in its occupation of the territory, and even those who had been in India's favour began to speak in terms of the state's association with Pakistan.
In early , an agitation was started by Jammu Praja Parishad , a Hindu nationalist party which was active in the Jammu region, over the ruling National Conference's policies.
The government swiftly suppressed it by arresting as many as members of the Praja Parishad including Prem Nath Dogra, its president.
Though Sheikh's land reforms were said to have benefited the people of rural areas, Praja Parishad opposed the 'Landed Estates Abolition Act', saying it was against the Indian Constitutional rights, for implementing land acquisition without compensation.
Praja Parishad also called for the full integration with the rest of India, directly clashing with the demands of National Conference for complete autonomy of the state.
On 15 January , students staged a demonstration against the hoisting of the state flag alongside the Indian Union flag.
They were penalised, giving rise to a big procession on 8 February. The military was called out and a hour curfew imposed.
Gopalaswami Ayyangar , the Indian Central Cabinet minister in charge of Kashmir affairs, came down to broker peace, which was resented by Sheikh Abdullah.
In order to break the constitutional deadlock, Nehru invited the National Conference to send a delegation to Delhi.
The ' Delhi Agreement' was formulated to settle the extent of applicability of the Indian Constitution to the Jammu and Kashmir and the relation between the State and Centre.
It was reached between Nehru and Abdullah on 24 July Following this, the Constituent Assembly abolished the monarchy in Kashmir, and adopted an elected Head of State Sadr-i Riyasat.
However, the Assembly was reluctant to implement the remaining measures agreed to in the Delhi Agreement.
In , Sheikh Abdullah drifted from his previous position of endorsing accession to India to insisting on the self-determination of Kashmiris.
The Praja Parishad undertook a civil disobedience campaign for a third time in November , which again led to repression by the state government.
The Parishad accused Abdullah of communalism sectarianism , favouring the Muslim interests in the state and sacrificing the interests of the others.
The Jana Sangh joined hands with the Hindu Mahasabha and Ram Rajya Parishad to launch a parallel agitation in Delhi. In May , Shyama Prasad Mukherjee , a prominent Indian leader of the time and the founder of Hindu nationalist party Bharatiya Jana Sangh later evolved as BJP , made a bid to enter Jammu and Kashmir after denying to take a permit, citing his rights as an Indian citizen to visit any part of the country.
Abdullah prohibited his entry and promptly arrested him when he attempted. An estimated 10, activists were imprisoned in Jammu, Punjab and Delhi, including Members of Parliament.
Unfortunately, Mukherjee died in detention on 23 June , leading to an uproar in whole India and precipitating a crisis that went out of control.
Observers state that Abdullah became upset, as he felt, his "absolute power" was being compromised in India. Meanwhile, Nehru's pledge of a referendum to people of Kashmir did not come into action.
Sheikh Abdullah advocated complete independence and had allegedly joined hands with US to conspire against India.
On 8 August , Sheikh Abdullah was dismissed as Prime Minister by the Sadr-i-Riyasat Karan Singh on the charge that he had lost the confidence of his cabinet.
He was denied the opportunity to prove his majority on the floor of the house. He was also jailed in while Sheikh's dissident deputy, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad was appointed as the new Prime Minister of the state.
From all the information I have, 95 per cent of Kashmir Muslims do not wish to be or remain Indian citizens.
I doubt therefore the wisdom of trying to keep people by force where they do not wish to stay. This cannot but have serious long-term political consequences, though immediately it may suit policy and please public opinion.
Bakshi Mohammad implemented all the measures of the ' Delhi Agreement'. On 15 February , under the leadership of Bakshi Mohammad, the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir ratified the state's accession to India.
After the overthrow of Sheikh Abdullah, his lieutenant Mirza Afzal Beg formed the Plebiscite Front on 9 August to fight for the plebiscite demand and the unconditional release of Sheikh Abdullah.
The activities of the Plebiscite Front eventually led to the institution of the infamous Kashmir Conspiracy Case in and two other cases. On 8 August , Abdullah was arrested on the charges of these cases.
India's Home Minister, Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant , during his visit to Srinagar in , declared that the State of Jammu and Kashmir was an integral part of India and there could be no question of a plebiscite to determine its status afresh, hinting that India would resist plebiscite efforts from then on.
After the mass unrest due to missing of holy relic from the Hazratbal Shrine on 27 December , the State Government dropped all charges in the Kashmir Conspiracy Case as a diplomatic decision, on 8 April Sheikh Abdullah was released and returned to Srinagar where he was accorded a great welcome by the people of the valley.
After his release he was reconciled with Nehru. Nehru requested Sheikh Abdullah to act as a bridge between India and Pakistan and make President Ayub to agree to come to New Delhi for the talks for a final solution of the Kashmir problem.
President Ayub Khan also sent telegrams to Nehru and Sheikh Abdullah with the message that as Pakistan too was a party to the Kashmir dispute any resolution of the conflict without its participation would not be acceptable to Pakistan.
Sheikh Abdullah went to Pakistan in the spring of President Ayub Khan of Pakistan held extensive talks with him to explore various avenues for solving the Kashmir problem and agreed to come to Delhi in mid June for talks with Nehru as suggested by him.
Even the date of his proposed visit was fixed and communicated to New Delhi. Im Juli wurde mit dem Delhi-Abkommen diese Autonomie bekräftigt und Kaschmir bekam eine eigene Flagge.
Abdullah wollte weiterhin einen völlig unabhängigen Staat, weswegen Indien misstrauisch wurde und ihn ins Gefängnis steckte.
Er kam zwar wieder frei, wurde aber wegen seiner Forderung, eine Volksabstimmung durchzuführen, bald wieder inhaftiert.
Er wurde dann freigelassen, durfte aber nicht an den Wahlen teilnehmen, die er aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach gewonnen hätte. Es gab nun keine Neuwahlen mehr in Kaschmir und er wurde auf Befehl Indira Gandhis eingesetzt und war ihr somit unterstellt.
Es kam zu Neuwahlen in Kaschmir und Jammu, in denen Sheikh Abdullah als Sieger hervorging und hiermit demokratisch legitimierter Ministerpräsident war.
In Kaschmir war die junge Generation Muslime enttäuscht, da kaum Arbeitsplätze vorhanden waren. Ein Drittel des Staatsdienstes war durch kaschmirische Pandits besetzt.
Es kam zu Pogromen , die dazu führten, dass die meisten Hindus aus dem Tal Kaschmir fliehen mussten. Diese Pogrome wurden vom islamischen Fanatismus angetrieben.
Farooq Abdullah wurde nach dem Tod seines Vaters Sheikh Abdullah dessen Nachfolger als Parteiführer der JKNC und Chief Minister von Jammu und Kashmir.
Die indische Premierministerin Indira Gandhi stürzte ihn aus machtpolitischem Kalkül und von bis wurde ihr Kandidat Ghulam Mohammad Shah Chief Minister.
Danach wurde wieder Farooq Abdullah, der sich inzwischen mit der Kongresspartei verbündet hatte, Chief Minister. Die Wahlen zum Parlament gewann die Koalition aus JKNC und Kongresspartei, jedoch wurde die Wahl weithin als grob gefälscht angesehen.
Der dreiste Wahlbetrug führte zu einer Radikalisierung der Opposition. Nach der Wahlniederlage der Kongresspartei bei der gesamtindischen Wahl wurde Vishwanath Pratap Singh Premierminister.
Fünf Tage nach dessen Regierungsbildung pressten Terroristen mit der Entführung der Tochter des aus Kashmir stammenden indischen Innenministers Mohammad Sayeed fünf Gefangene frei.
Die Regierung sandte Jagmohan als Gouverneur nach Srinagar und verfolgte einen härteren Kurs. Farooq Abdullah trat deswegen zurück. Bald danach schossen Polizisten bei einem blutigen Massaker auf Demonstranten.
Hiermit hatte die Zeit des Staatsterrors und der mörderischen Militanz der Rebellen begonnen. Jagmohan glaubte, die Pandits retten zu müssen, da er Angst hatte vor Pogromen, und führte eine riesige Evakuierung durch.
Einige Pandits blieben jedoch. Nine airports in northern India were temporarily closed but have now reopened, reports in India say.
Recapping effects on aviation due to India-Pakistan situation. Later on Wednesday Thai Airways, which said it was directly affected by the closure of airspace, cancelled all Europe-bound flights and said it had requested permission to use other routes.
Other airlines such as British Airways, Air India, Jet Airways, Qatar Airways and Singapore Airlines re-routed flights. Both Indian and Pakistani troops have been shelling across the LoC.
Four Pakistani civilians were killed and 10 others were injured in cross-border shelling on Tuesday. On the Indian side, five soldiers were also injured in the firing, officials told the BBC.
Schools in at least two districts along the LoC - Rajouri and Poonch - have been closed. In a separate incident on Wednesday morning, six members of the Indian Air Force were killed when their helicopter crashed in Indian-administered Kashmir.
India's defence ministry said the incident occurred during a routine operation and was an accident. October First war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir just two months after they become independent nations.
August The neighbours fight another brief war over Kashmir.